Description of Plantae and Animalia Kingdom

Plant and animal kingdom are further classified to sub-classes with common characteristics in order to be identified with an ease. For example, flowering plants can be classified as phanerogams while non-flowering plants are known as cryptograms. Likewise, in animals, the organisms are classified based on their body shape, design and complexity.


Plantae and Animalia Kingdom

Some plants have differentiated reproductive organs that bear the ability to produce seeds and fruits. These plants are collectively called as phanerogams. Phanerograms consists of 2 classes –gymnosperms and angiosperms.


Class 4: Gymnosperms:



  • naked, Sperma – seeds (in Greek)
  • Perennial, evergreen, and woody

Examples – pines, and deodars (Figure 1)

Figure 1: Gymnosperms


Class 5: Angiosperms:

1. Angio – covered; Sperma – seeds (in Greek).

2. Seeds develop in organs that are later modified into fruits. Seeds are enclosed within the fruits.

3. Embryos in seeds have leaf-like structures called cotyledons which germinate into new plants. Based on cotyledons, the plants are further divided into monocots and dicots

4. Monocots are plants with a single cotyledon. Example – paphiopedilum

5. Dicots are plants with two cotyledons. Example – Ipomea


Figure 2: Angiosperms – monocots and dicots:

A. Monocots – Paphiopedilum                          B. Dicots - Ipomea


Figure 3: Classification of plants:


Kingdom Animalia:

A criterion to classify animals:

1. Type of body design and differentiation

2. Motility

Class 1 – Porifera:

  • Commonly called sponges
  • Pori – pores, meaning organism has holes all over the body
  • Pores help the organism to circulate food and air throughout the body
  • Very minimum differentiation and tissues in the body
  • These organisms are covered with hard skeleton-like layer outside
  • Non-motile
  • Found in seas and oceans

Examples –




(Figure 4)

Figure 4: Organisms belonging to class Porifera


Class 2 – Coelenterata:

  • Presence of cavity in the body
  • Body is differentiated to outer and inner layer of cells
  • Some of these live in colonies
  • Usually found in aquatic habitat

Example – sea anemones, hydra, and jellyfish

Figure 5: Organisms belonging to class Coelenterata


Class 3 - Platyhelminthes

  • Body is bilaterally symmetrical
  • Also known as triploblastic – as the body is made up of three layers of cells which further differentiate into tissues
  • Little tissue formation is seen. No development of organs is observed
  • Lack of true internal body cavity or coelom
  • Body is flattened dorsoventrally  - hence known as flatworms

Examples of organisms belonging to this class – liver flukes, planarians

Figure 6: Organisms belonging to the class Platyhelminthes:


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