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A tissue is a collection of cells with similar structure and performing a similar function. Animals and plants are made up of different tissues based on their structural organization. Plant tissues mainly includes meristematic tissue which is further divided into apical, lateral and intercalary and permanent tissue which are further divided into simple and complex permanent tissues


Plant Tissues Type And Function

Cells with similar structure performing similar functions are referred as tissue. Plant tissues are dead and are meant for providing structural strength as plants are restricted in their movements. Growth tissues in plants are bound for specific locations. Plant tissues mainly include meristematic and permanent types.


Meristematic Tissue

Cells of these tissues are actively dividing which provide growth to plants. This kind of tissue includes the cell with the active nucleus and dense cytoplasm. Based on their location these tissues are of three types namely apical, lateral, and intercalary.

Apical meristem: Present on the tip of shoot or root and are involved in increasing length of roots as well as the stem.

Lateral meristem: These are involved in an increase in diameter of stem and root. Also known as cambium.

Intercalary meristem. Present in regions between mature tissues. Mainly observed around a base of internodes and leaves.


Permanent Tissue

These tissues are formed as a result of differentiation of meristematic tissues.  Meristematic tissue cells will lose activity once they have a specific shape size and function resulting permanent tissue development. They are mainly of two types simple and complex.


Simple Permanent Tissue

These tissues are made up of similar kind of cells and are mainly involved in packing. Parenchyma: Simple permanent tissue having live cells and large intercellular spaces. They provide strength and occasionally help in food storage

Chlorenchyma: Parenchyma containing chlorophyll. They are helpful in performing the process of photosynthesis

Aerenchyma: Parenchyma with large cavities. They are generally seen in aquatic plants and plays role in buoyancy

Collenchyma: Made of living cells and are located below the epidermis. Cells are generally elongated with irregular corner thickenings. Provide support and bending movements to plants

Sclerenchyma: Made of long, narrow and dead cells. Walls of this tissue are very thick with no internal spaces. Provide hardness to plants


Complex permanent Tissue

Tissues made up of many kinds of cells which unite to perform specific function e.g. Xylem, Phloem

Xylem: Mainly consists ofTracheids, vessels which are tubular in structure and helps in vertical transport of water and minerals. Xylem parenchyma helps in food storage and xylem fibers for structural support

Phloem: It consists of sieve tubes with tubular cells and perforated walls, companion cells, phloem fibers and phloem parenchyma. All phloem cells are living cells with the exception of phloem fibers.