Kingdom Plantae:

Kingdom plantae are autotrophic, chlorophyll containing eukaryotic organisms commonly known as plants. The cell wall is mainly made up of cellulose. The reproductive life cycle of plants occurs as two distinct phases – the diploid sporophytic and the haploid gametophytic phase. These phases alternate with each other according to the favorable conditions. This phenomenon is known as alteration of generation. Plants are not capable of locomotion. Get instant Plant Animal and Kingdom Of Viruses Assignment Help from Tutorspoint

Some plants are heterotrophic as they feed on insects (insectivorus plants) or live as parasites (For example, algae). However, most of them are autotrophic and prepare their own food in the presence of sunlight.

Kingdom Animalia:

The Kingdom animalia consists of organisms that are heterotrophic and are dependent either directly or indirectly on plants for their nutrition. Organisms belonging to this kingdom are eukaryotic, multicellular, and lack cell walls. The food consumed by these organisms is digested into an internal cavity known as abdomen and the food is stored as reserves of glycogen. These reserves of glycogen are essential for life processes such as growth, reproduction, stimulus and other metabolic activities. Most of the animals are capable of locomotion.

Viruses, Viroids and lichens:

Viruses do not find a place in classification of five kingdoms as they are not ‘truly living’. Viruses are capable of reproduction only within the host cell. Thus, viruses are non-cellular organisms characterized by an inert crystalline structure when present outside a living cell. Once present inside a host cell, their genetic material integrates with the genetic material of the host resulting in rapid multiplication of virus that can kill the host cell. The genetic material of virus could be either DNA or RNA. In addition to this, viruses are coated with a protein coat called capsid which is made up of small units called capsomeres. The capsid protein coat protects the genetic material of viruses. The capsomeres are arranged in helical or polyhedral forms. Some of the well-known diseases caused by virus are influenza, mumps, measles, small pox, herpes and AIDS.


Viroids are smaller than virus in terms of size. Viroids are free-RNA and lack a proper protein coat. Viroids are known to cause potato spindle tuber disease.


Lichens are symbionts that live in a symbiotic relationship with fungi and algae. The algal component is known as phycobiont and the fungal component is known as the mycobiont. The algal component is autotrophic and the fungal component is heterotrophic, thus algae prepare food for fungi and in return, fungi provide shelter, minerals and water for algae. Lichens do not grow in polluted areas and hence are good pollution indicators.

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