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Angiosperms Homework Help

Angiosperms are found in every kind of habitat except extreme environments. They range from microscopic Wolfiato tall trees like Eucalyptus. Angiosperms constitute one of the major groups of seed plants. Angiosperms also known as flowering plants as their pollens and ovules are developed inside a flower i.e. they are not naked in nature. Angiosperms have commercial value in providing with food, medicines fodder, fuel etc.

 

Classes of Angiosperms

Angiosperms are mainly divided into two classes namely dicotyledons and monocotyledons. Monocotyledons have one cotyledons in their seed where as dicotyledons have two cotyledons

Male sex organ

Male sex organ is known as stamen. Stamen consists of three parts as anther where microspores are produced by meiosis, a connective which serves as connection between anther and stalk like filament.

 

Female sex organ

Female sex organ is known as carpel or pistil.  Pistil consists of ovary where seeds are produced a style which is a pillar like structure which connects to stigma the sticky end where pollens are sticks. Ovary encloses ovules which possess female gametophyte known as embryo sacs. Cells of embryo sacs are haploid as a result of meiosis. Embryo sacs possess egg apparatus which is made of three cells namely egg cells with synergids, polar nuclei and antipodal cells.

 

Fertilization

Polar nuclei are two in number which fuses to produce secondary nucleus which is diploid in nature.  After pollination pollens are transferred to the stigma where the stick to produce tube like structure which penetrates stigma and style to reach ovary where they discharge their two gametes. One male gamete fuses with secondary nucleus to produce triploid primary endosperm nucleus (PEN). Another male gamete fuses with egg cell to fromzygote and this process is known as syngamy. As two fusion processes take simultaneously this process is termed as double fertilization

 

Zygote thus formed develops into embryo and PEN develops into endosperm to provide nourishment to embryo under development. Synergids and antipodal cells present in egg apparatus degenerates after fertilization process. Ovules develop into seeds and ovary develops into fruit.