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Define Structure of A Flower
Parts of a flower – Calyx, and corolla:
A flower is the most beautiful part of the plant. One can identify the plant by recognizing the flower. Figure 3.3.1 shows different parts of a flower. The structure of flower has four main parts, namely, calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. The most prominent part of a flower is its petals (Figure 3.3.1). Flowers of different plants have petals in different colors. In a fully bloomed flower, petals can be easily identified, but when the flower is in its budding stage, the petals are closed and overlapped with small leaf-like structures on its outer sides. These small leaf-like structures are called as sepals. The outermost whorl of sepals in a flower is termed as calyx, whereas the inner whorl of petals is termed as corolla. The number of petals and sepals in each flower differs from plant to plant. Also if observed carefully, in some flowers, sepals are joined together, whereas in some they are separate. These differences help us identify the flowers and classify them appropriately.
Figure 3.3.1: Parts of a flower:
Other parts of the flower can be observed if the flower is cut open in lengthwise fashion. By removing the petals and sepals, we can observe a group of long and slender stamens united at the bottom. This part, where stamens unite is called as Pistil and it is the innermost part of the flower. Each stamen has a lower thin stalk called filament, which holds an anther on top of it. Each anther contains numerous pollens, which are male gametes of the flower.
Another important structure of a flower is the ovary. The ovary is located at the lowermost part of the pistil. Each ovary consists of bead-like structures called the ovules. The ovary tapers into a supportive stalk called style and a sticky upper-end tip called stigma. Stigma is used for adhering pollens during fertilization period. Once pollen adheres, the stigma transports the pollens to ovary through style in order to get fertilized.
Different plants have varieties of flowers with a difference in a number of petals, sepals, stamens and pistils. Some parts may even be absent in some flowers, indicating the structure of flower is not the same for every plant.