A phylum is the second largest group under the hierarchy system of animal kingdom. Organisms having similar characteristics in a broader perspective are classified into different phyla. Tutorspoint provides Phyla of Animal Kingdom Homework Help & Assignment help for Biology students all over the world

Phylum Porifera:

1.      Commonly known as sponges, aquatic in habitat and asymmetrical in body shape

2.      Primitive multicellular animals and have cellular level of organization.

3.      Food is gathered through the water transport system of the body. Water enters through the minute pores called as ostia present on the outer surface of the body and is passed on to the central cavity called as spongocoel. From the cavity,the water is transported back into the environment through the osculum. The water transport also serves as a purpose for respiratory system, excretion system.

4.      Cells lining the spongocoel and the canals are called as choanocytes or collar cells.

5.      The body of sponges is supported by a skeleton made up of spicules or sponge fibres.

6.      The digestion is intracellular.

7.      Sponges are hermaphrodite (sexes are not separate).

8.      Mode of reproduction is asexually by fragmentation and sexually by formation of gametes

9.      Fertilization is internal and the development of offspring is through the larval stage which is distinct from the adult stage.

10.  Organisms belonging to this phylum are Sycon (Scypha), Spongilla (Fresh water sponge), and Euspongia (Bath sponge).


Phylum Coelenterata:

1.      Aquatic in habitat, radial symmetry body shape

2.      Also known as cnidoblasts or cnidocytes due to the presence of stinging capsules present on the tentacles and the body. These stinging capsules or nematocytes serve the purpose of anchorage, defense and capturing of prey.

3.      Tissue level organization and are diploblastic

4.      Presence of central gastro-vascular body cavity with a single opening called hypostome

5.      Digestion is both extracellular and intracellular

6.      Some of the animals like corals have skeleton made up of calcium carbonate

7.      Two different body forms are seen – polyp and medusa. Polyp is sessile, cylindrical and hollow shaped and medusa is umbrella-shaped and free swimming.

8.      Organisms with polyp body shape – Hydra, Adamisa and Organisms with medusa body shape – jelly fish, Aurelia

9.      Organisms belonging to this phylum such as Obelia can exhibit both medusa and polyp shape with alteration of generation. i.e., Polyps produce meduca asexually and medusa produce polyps sexually.

10.  Examples of organisms belonging to this class – Physalia, Adamsia (Sea anemone), Pennatula (Sea-pen), Meandrina (Brain Coral)

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