Parts of A Plant

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Classification of plants:

It is easy to find plants of different sizes all around us. One major classification of plants is based on their stem. Plants which are short and have slim and tender stem are called herbs. Herbs usually do not have many branches. Plants which have stems branching out just above the ground are called as shrubs. Shrubs have a short and thick stem. Plants which are huge and have a tall, hard stem are called as trees.

Trees have a strong stem with branches away from the ground. There are some plants with weak stem and lack enough support to stand erect on the ground. They are spread all over the ground and hence are called as creepers. Some plants are called as climbers because they have hooks on their stems to climb up on other adjacent plants or any other support and hence the name.


The purpose of a stem:

A stem conducts water and minerals from the ground to the leaves. This activity can be performed at home using red ink, a beaker containing water and a plant with the short stem. Few drops of ink are added to the water in the beaker and the plant with a cut stem is placed in it overnight. Next day, it can be observed that few parts of the plant are red in color, indicating that the stem conducts the water up to the leaves. On cutting the stem cross-sectional, one can observe rings surrounding the insides of the stem, thus confirming the transport of water to the leaves through the stem.



Roots of a plant can be found below the soil. An important function of roots is that they help to absorb water and minerals present in the soil to stem. Roots also help to anchor the plant firmly to the soil. There are different types of roots – taproot and fibrous roots. Some plants have one main root called tap root and other lateral roots branching out from the taproot (Figure 3.1.1 a). Whereas some plants do not have one main root, rather they have many roots and hence are called as fibrous roots (Figure 3.1.1 b).


Figure 3.1.1 Different types of roots:

A.    Tap Root of carrot                B. Fibrous root of grass


Parts of A Plant Assignment Help