Parts of a flowering plant: 

The Root:The seed of a dicotyledonous plant gives rise to the radical which directly elongates to form primary root, which grows deep further in the soil.  From the primary root, secondary and tertiary roots arise on its lateral sides. The primary root along with its branches constitutes the tap root system (E.g. mustard plant). In the case of monocotyledonous plants, the primary root is soon replaced by several roots that originate from the base of the stem. These kinds of roots are defined as fibrous roots (E.g. wheat plant).  If the roots arise from parts of plant rather than from the radical, then they are called as adventitious roots (E.g. Grass).

Morphology of Flowering Plants Homework Help

Functions of root: Absorption of water and minerals from the soil, to provide strong anchorage to the plant, storing food reserves and synthesis of plant growth regulators.

 

A.    Tap Root              B. Fibrous roots                     C. Adventitious roots

 

Regions of the root:The tap root tapers down and is covered by a thimble-like structure called root cap at its apex. The function of root cap is to protect the root apex as it grows deep into the soil. Above the root cap, is the region of meristematic activity which comprises several small, thin walled cells with dense protoplasm. These cells divide repeatedly. The cells in proximity to the cells of meristematic activity region also continuously divide in order to continuously elongate and enlarge the growth of the root. This region is called as region of elongation. Above the region of elongation is the region of maturation, where the cells of elongation gradually differentiate and mature. From this region, epidermal cells form fine, hair-like structures called root hairs. These root hairs absorb water and minerals from the soil. Morphology of Flowering Plants Homework Help

 

Modifications of root: Roots can be modified for following purposes,

For support (E.g. Banyan tree)

For storage of food (Potato plant, carrot plant, beetroot plant)

For respiration (E.g. Rhizophora)

 

 

A.    Storage                       B. Respiration (Pnematophores arising in Rhizopora)