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Define Living Processes of Cockroach:
Excretory system of cockroach: Excretion is performed by malphigian tubules present at the junction of midgut and hindgut of alimentary canal. These rings of tubules are lined with ciliated and glandular cells which absorb the nitrogenous waste products and convert them in to uric acid that is excreted out of hindgut. This type of excretory system in insects is known as uricotelic. Additionally, the urecose glands, nephrocytes and fat body also help is excretion process.
Nervous system of cockroach: A series of fused, segmentally arranged ganglia joined by paired longitudinal connectives are present on the ventral side of the body. Three ganglia lie in thorax region, and six lie in the abdomen region. The nervous system is present little in head and throughout the body. This explains the fact that cockroaches can live a week longer even after they are beheaded. In the head region, the brain is represented by supra-oesophagal ganglion which supplies nerves to antennae and compound eyes. Sensory organs of cockroach are antennae, compound eyes, maxillary palps, labial palps and anal cerci. The compound eyes of cockroach are made up of 2000 hexagonal ommatidia that receive a mosaic vision of the object with more sensitivity and less resolution.
Reproductive system of cockroach: Cockroaches are dioecious. The male reproductive system consists of a pair of testes from which a vas deferens runs down and opens into an ejaculatory duct through seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicles consist of sperms bundled together in packets called spermatophores. The ejaculatory duct opens into male gonophores situated on the ventral side of anus. A characteristic mushroom-shaped gland known as reproductive accessory gland is present in the 6th-7th abdominal segments. The external genital pores are represented by male gonopophysis.
The female reproductive system consists of two large ovaries present in the 2nd-6th abdominal segment on the lateral side. Each ovary is a group of eight ovarian tubules containing a chain of developing ova. These ovaries are connected by a single oviduct that opens into the genital pore. Additionally, a pair of spermatheca present in the 6th chamber also opens into the genital pore.
During copulation, packets of spermatophores are discharged, thus transferring sperms in to oviduct of females. The fertilized eggs are then encased in capsules called oothecae. These capsules are then dropped or glued on a suitable surface near food source. Each oothecae contains about 14-16 eggs. Thus in cockroaches, the fertilization is internal and development is parametabolus as it occurs through a nymphal stage.