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Living And Non-Living Things
Biotic and abiotic components of the world:
In our world, everything is divided into two major components – biotic and abiotic. Biotic component composes of all living creatures such as plants and animals whereas abiotic component consists of all non-living creatures such as sunlight, heat, rock, sands, wood, air and water.
Differences between living and non-living things:
- All living things require food to produce energy that is required for growth and development of the body. While plants prepare their own food through photosynthesis, animals depend on plants and other animals for their living. However, non-living things do not require food to live.
- All plants and animals show different stages of growth, however, non-living things cannot grow.
- It is common that all living things respire, i.e., exchange gasses – oxygen and carbon dioxide for their living. It is essential for living things to respire, as the oxygen inhaled by animals from the air helps in producing energy in the body. Plants also respire by taking in air through the tiny pores in leaves and exhale carbon dioxide. However, in the case of plants, the plants require carbon dioxide from the air to prepare food in the presence of sunlight. Also, the fishes and other plants present in the sea use dissolved air to respire.
- Another common fact to all living things is that they respond to stimuli. All plants and animals respond immediately to changes such as heat, pain etc .. in their surroundings. These changes that make organisms respond to them are called as stimuli.
- All living things throw out wastes and other toxins present in their body in the form of sweat, urine, feces and mucous. This process is called as excretion. In terms of plants, it is either transpiration or secretion of toxins.
- It is also common that all living things reproduce young ones of their own kind. For example, a cow gives birth to calf whereas dog gives birth to puppies. It is essential for living things to reproduce their own kind so as to exist in the environment. Some animals reproduce by eggs, while some give birth to their young ones. In plants, seeds present in fruits germinate to grow into new plants. Some plants reproduce through other parts of the plant, for example, potatoes can themselves grow into new plants. Some plants also reproduce through cuttings of the plant.
- Locomotion – all animals show movement from one place to another. While plants cannot move from one place to another, but they show transportation of water and minerals from the root to different parts of the plant.
- Another common characteristic of living beings is that they die after their average age.