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Class Reptilia:

1.      Terrestrial animals, creeping and crawling over land for locomotion. Hence the name reptilian (Latin reptere or reptum – to creep or crawl)

2.      Body is covered by dry cornified skin also known as epidermal scales or scutes.

3.      Two pairs of limbs are usually present. Typanum represents ear.

4.      Cold-blooded animals with usually three-chambered heart. Crocodiles have four-chambered heart

5.      Snakes and lizards shed their scales as skin cast

6.      Animals are dioecious, and oviparous. Fertilization is internal with direct development.

7.      Examples of organisms belonging to this class – Chelone (Turtle), Chameleon (Tree lizard), Crocodilus (Crocodile), poisonous snakes like Naja (Cobra), Vipera (Viper)


A.    Chameleone               B. Crocodilus                         C. Chelone                 D. Naja


Class Aves:

1.      Characteristic feature – Presence of wings. Forelimbs are modified to wings which help in flying. Most birds can fly except flightless birds like Kiwi, Ostrich etc

2.      Hind limbs generally have scales are used for walking, swimming or holding on to branches of trees.

3.      Mouth is designed in the form of beak

4.      Skin is dry due to absence of glands. However oil glands are present at the base of the tail

5.      The endoskeleton is ossified and is made of long bone that contain hollow air cavities

6.      Presence of crop and gizzard in the digestive tract of birds that helps in grinding branches, meat and other food items

7.      Four chambered heart. Warm-blooded animals, also known as Homoiothermous i.e., they are able to maintain constant body temperature.

8.      Respiration is by air sacs present in the lungs

9.      Birds are dioecious and oviparous. Fertilization is internal and development is direct.

10.   Examples of organisms belonging to the class aves – Nephron (Vulture), Pavo (peacock), Struthio (Ostrich)


A.    Nephron                                 B. Struthio

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