Family Fabaceae

Subfamily of Leguminosae

Vegetative characters - Trees, shrubs, herbs

Root - Root with root nodules

Stem - Erect, or climber

Leaves - Alternate, simple or pinnately compound, leaf base, pulvinate, stipulate, reticulate venation

Floral characters

Inflorescence: Racemose

Flower: Bisexual, zygomorphic

Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous, imbricate aestivation

Corolla: Five petals, polypetalous, vexillary aestivation

Androecium: Ten, diadelphous, dithecous anther

Gynoecium: monocarpellary, superior ovary, single style, unilocular with many ovules

Fruit: legume

Seed: One to many, non-endospermic

Economic importance: Plants belonging to this family are main sources of pulses (Soya bean, celera beans), edible oil (soya bean, groundnut), dye (Indigofera), fodder and fibers (Sesbania), ornamentals (lupin, sweet pea), medicine.

A.   Flowering twig

B.   Flower

C.   Petals

D.  Reproductive parts

E.   L.S Carpel

Family Solanaceae Also known as ‘Potato family’

Vegetative characters: Plants, herbs, shrubs and small trees

Stem: Herbaceous, aerial, erect, cylindrical, branched, hairy, underground stem in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Leaves: Alternate, simple or pinnately compound rarely, exstipulate, reticulate venation

Floral characters

Inflorescence: Solitary, axillary or cymose

Flower: Bisexual, actinomorphic

Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous, valvate aestivation

Corolla: Five petals, polypetalous, valvate aestivation

Androecium: Five stamens, epipetalous

Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary, bicolular, placenta is swollen with many ovules

Fruits: Berry or capsule

Seeds: Many, endospermous

Economic importance

Main source of food (E.g tomato, brinjal, potato), spicy (Chilly), medicine (Belladonna), fumigatory (tobacco) and ornamentals (petunia)

Flowering twig           B. Flower       C. L.S of flower         D. Stamens     E. Carpel

Family Liliaceae

Commonly called as the ‘Lily family’. Representative of monocotyledonous plants

Vegetative characters: Perennial herbs with underground bulbs/corns/rhizomes

Leaves: Basal, alternate, exstipulate with parallel venation

Floral characters

Inflorescence: Solitary/cymose

Flower: Bisexual, actinomorphic

Perianth: Six tepals, often united into tube, valvate aestivation

Androecium: Six stamens

Gynoecium: Tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary, trilocular with many ovules, axile placentation

Fruit Mostly capsule, rarely berry

Seed Endospermous

Economic importance

The main source of ornamentals (tulip, lily), medicine (Aloe vera), vegetables (Asparagus) and Colchicine.

A.    Plant                           B. Inflorescence         C. Flower

Description of Important Families Homework Help