Crowding Out Effect
Normally the government borrows money from different countries to provide financial aid to the host country. Due to huge borrowings there comes a point where money cannot be borrowed further and this is called Crowding-Out Effects
When the borrowings are not repaid it is the host country where the prices are going to rise and the inflation rate is going to increase. Thus Crowding Out has an adverse effect on the economy. It is a situation where prices rise and due to that the interest rate of the central bank rises. Now if the rate of interest of the central bank is high then all the commercial and private sector banks are going to increase their interest rates. Then a situation comes when the government starts borrowing from companies and financial institutions. At a certain point in time, they can help after which these organizations also fall short of finance and there comes Crowding-out Effect.
Since the companies are a crowd out, the name has derived as Crowding Out Effect. Normally borrowings are made so that they can support the Expansionary Fiscal Policies of the country. That may be the development of transport facilities, infrastructure etc.
It has an adverse effect on the fiscal policy of the government. There are multiple reasons for the same. They are as follows:
- Higher Borrowings higher the risk
- More borrowings means more interest rate
- Higher the interest rate higher the cost of living
- High cost of living brings Inflation
- Inflation affects GDP directly
- More fiscal deficit
Thus crowding out has many side effects on the country’s financial position.
Moreover, the more the money flows within or outside the country Liquidity crunch comes into the scenario. When money demand is more and supply is less the same circle of Interest rate, inflation, Cost of living etc starts the movement. It has an adverse effect on the foreign exchange market as well. It also leads to political instability as peoples’ trust is going to decrease.
Crowding out is mainly done to finance the Deficit. But that is not a good way to finance. It the finance is coming outside the economy will go back and the citizen will be able to make any good use of the money. Funding the Local Deficit by Foreign Borrowing is not advisable at all. It makes the economy weak from inside and also not recommendable.
In a nutshell, it should be checked that the borrowings are a lesson because it has its effects on almost all the sectors of the economy. Funding the budget deficit is the highly relative topic and is always subjected to controversies. But overall Crowding Out should be avoided.