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Control and Coordination in Animals Homework Help:

Every action and movement in response to change in surrounding environmental activity is properly controlled by systems with specialized tissues. Nervous and muscular tissues are involved to provide such control in case of animals. Response to changing environmental condition is termed as reflexes. Reflex action is a function of spinal cord and brain with well coordinated mechanism starting at the cellular level.

 

Control and Coordination in Animals

Our response to changing surrounding conditions needs to be properly controlled and well coordinated as it should suit the changes in surrounding condition. Nervous system plays a major role in coordinating our response to these changes.

Animals nervous system

Nervous systems are made of specialized cells known as neurons Dendritic tip of these neurons collects information necessary for starting an electric impulse in response to change in environmental condition.

 

This impulse is responsible for releasing certain chemicals after it reaches the axonic end of neurons to coordinate with other nerve cells. This impulse is transmitted to other cells via neuromuscular junction  to generate a response.

 

 

Reflex actions

Sudden response to changing environmental condition is known as reflexes. Nerves collect signal impulses at the site and transfer the same to other nerve which directs muscles to perform specific action. This connection is known as which is formed in the spinal cord.

Brain is defined as the coordinating center of our body. Brain together with spinal cord constitutes the spinal cord of our body. Peripheral nervous system consisting of cranial and spinal nerves arising from brain and spinal cord respectively facilitates the communication between central nervous system and other body parts. Parts of brain are involved in coordinating a particular response includes fore-brain, mid-brain, hind-brain. Fore brain has sense of hearing, smell, sight, hunger etc. It does the thinking activity for brain. Mid brain and hind brain control involuntary actions. Actions like Blood pressure, salvation and vomiting have their centers in medulla in hind brain. Cerebellumof hind- brain maintains body balance and controls precision in voluntary actions.

Inside our body brain is protected by being placed in a brainy box filled with a fluid inside which acts as shock absorber. Spinal cord is protected by our back bone.

Mechanism of nerve tissue causing action

Nerve impulses are collected by muscle cells under whose guidance certain specialized proteins present in muscle cells change their shape and size thus constricting the muscle fibre.