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Importance of conservation of plants and animals
Humans are responsible for endangering various species of plants and animals by cutting down trees in the forests and using the land for various commercial purposes. This process of cutting down trees is known as deforestation. Deforestation has become a common problem worldwide, as we require land for cultivation, residential and commercial purposes and require wood and fuel for daily needs. Loss of forests is irreplaceable.
Consequences of deforestation:
· Results in increasing temperature of the climate globally
· Increases the level of carbon dioxide by hampering the oxygen cycle
· Hampers the water cycle of the environment as groundwater cannot seep into urban roads
· Decrease in rainfall, increase in pollution and other toxic gases
· Increased risk of floods and droughts due to decreased water-holding capacity of barren lands
· Decrease in fertility of the soil resulting in turning of fertile lands into deserts. This phenomenon is known as desertification.
Conservation of forests and wildlife:
Biosphere reserves: Biospheres are large areas which support the life and growth of diverse range of flora and fauna and endangered and rare species and encourage the living of traditional tribes as well. Biospheres are national heritage of a country, as they provide a unique atmosphere and knowledge of the flora and fauna found in different habitats.
Biodiversity: Biodiversity is defined as the diverse flora and fauna existing on the planet and their inter-relationships and relationships with the environment.
Sanctuaries: Sanctuaries are protected areas of a state or a country, where activities like plantation, cultivation, hunting and poaching are prohibited, thus protecting the plants and animals from any kind of disturbance or stress.
National park: Some areas of forests are reserved for wildlife in order to support their living in natural habitat.
These biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries and national parks are only reserves to conserve the wildlife and plants globally, as they depict the diverse range of flora and fauna existing on our planet.
Flora and fauna:
We know that there is a varied range of plants and animals existing in different habitats. Plants and animals existing in a particular area are known as flora and fauna of that area. For example, cactus is flora of deserts, while grass is flora of tropical countries. Likewise, tigers are faunas of tropical countries, while polar bears and penguin faunas of cold and snowy regions of the planet.
Endemic species are plants and animals found only in a particular area and are not found anywhere else naturally. Such plants and animals are endemic to a state or a country.