Here we will be discussing various components of food homework help
Describe Components of Food
It is interesting to know that food obtained from plants and animals, is made up of different components called nutrients which are a constant requirement of our body. The major nutrients are namely, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. These nutrients are present in every food item, either in less quantity or abundantly.
For example, rice has more carbohydrates compared to other nutrients; hence it is called as ‘carbohydrate-rich’ food. It is easy to test the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in a laboratory using iodine (I2), copper sulfate (CuSO4), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), few test tubes and a dropper. Food items such as raw potato, cooked rice, milk, boiled egg (white portion), groundnuts and dry coconut can be used to perform these tests.
Test for Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates generally exist in the form of starch and sugars. Hence, we can test the presence of starch in any food item by adding 2-3 drops of diluted iodine solution (I2) to it. It would be observed that the food item consisting of carbohydrates would change its color into blue-black, inferring the presence of starch in the food item. For successful results, perform this test with raw potato and cooked rice.
Test for proteins
To test the presence of protein in a food item, a small quantity of food item is mashed. The powder of food item along with ten drops of water is added to a clean test tube and mixed well. Next, using a dropper, two drops of copper sulfate solution (CuSO4) and ten drops of sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) is added to the test tube and mixed well. After few minutes, if the violet color is observed, it indicates the presence of protein in the food item. For successful results, perform this test with milk and boiled egg (the white portion).
Test for fats
To test the presence of fats, the food item is wrapped tightly in a piece of paper for few minutes. Please ensure that the paper does not tear. After few minutes, remove the food item and observe if there is an oily patch on the paper. Also, observe if you can see light vaguely through the patch. This confirms the presence of fats in the food item. For successful results, perform this test with groundnuts and dry coconut or any deep-fried food item.
Test for water as a component of food
Water is an important need for our body and is also present as a component in food. Many food items like tomato, lemons, fruits, and vegetables contain water. This can be observed while cutting them. Water is also used during the process of making food.
Our food is made up of different nutrients, majorly carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, and vitamins. Additionally, water is also an essential part of the food. It is difficult to test the presence of vitamins and minerals in the food item, due to their smaller quantities. However, we can test the presence of carbohydrates, fats, protein, and water in our food. From here, we go on to learn in the next section, how these nutrients contribute towards a healthy life.