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Description of Cell Structure:

Cell is a complex structure performing many functions. Basic components of a cell include a porous cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Nucleus and cytoplasm are enclosed within the cell membrane. Other organelles of a cell are present in the cytoplasm. Nucleus and cytoplasm are differentiated by a nuclear membrane present on the nucleus periphery presence and absence of which characterizes an organism being prokaryotes or eukaryotes.

Cell Structure And Function

Cell is complex machinery made up of many components which are specific in their function. Basically a cell has three main components cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. Nucleus along with cytoplasm is known protoplasm which is defined as the living material of a cell.

Cell membrane

This membrane is porous in nature and helps separating cell from its medium and also with other cells. It is designed in such a way that it has two way flow of materials i.e. both inwards and outwards from It provides shape to a cell and encloses nucleus and cytoplasm within it.


It refers to the jelly like medium residing between the cell membrane and nucleus. Cytoplasm acts like a filling material for a cell. It is highly viscous in nature. This medium holds other components of cell viz. mitochondria, ribosomes, golgi bodies etc..


It is the most important component of a cell placed at the center and is generally spherical in shape. Serving as the control center nucleus is covered by a porous membrane which separates it from the cytoplasm known as the nuclear membrane. This membrane is also porous in nature and helps in movement of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm both inwards and outwards. Nucleus contains sub components like nucleolus, chromosomes etc.Chromosomes are thread like structure which carries the genes which in turn is defined as the unit of heredity. Genes carry information that is transferred from parents to off springs.

To observe the basic components of a cell one can scarp a cheek embryo without hurting it with the help of a tooth pick. Placing the content in a drop of water on a glass slide and adding iodine/ methyl blue solution to it and covering it with a cover slip can help in visualizing cell components if viewed under microscope.