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Define Asexual Modes of Reproduction in Organisms

Different organism reproduces differently on the basis of their body design. Reproduction can be asexual or sexual. In case of asexual reproduction new individuals are developed from a single parent. Common modes of asexual reproduction include.

Fission

Commonly seen in unicellular organisms in which parent cell divides into two daughter cells. Different organism shows different ways of fission as in case of Amoeba fission process can take place in any plane.

Binary fission in Amoeba

In case of Leishmania fission process occurs in particular orientation. Another e.g. includes Plassmodium which reproduce through multiple fissions.

 

Multiple fission in Plasmodium

Fragmentation

This type of reproduction method is generally observed in case of multi cellular organisms with simple body organizations. In this process organism after attaining maturity breaks into small fragments which grows into new ones e.g. in case ofSpirogyra

 

Fragmentation in Spirogyra

Regeneration

Regeneration is a process in which individual body parts of an organism grows into a complete individual.  Specialized cells for regeneration grow and proliferate to generate a mass of cells which are then differentiated to different tissues to carry specific functions. It is generally observed in case of fully differentiated multi cellular organism e.g. Hydra

 

In case of hydra a bud develops at some part of the body and which continuously divides and develops into a new individual and finally detaches itself from the parent body. This process is known as Budding 

Vegetative propagation

It is a process of reproduction in case of plants in which under appropriate conditions plant parts like leaf, stem, roots etc can give rise to new individuals. Methods likegrafting, layering etc employs vegetative propagation. It helps to grow plants with no seed producing capacity like banana orange etc. Plants produced using this method is identical to their parents.

Plants likeBryophyllum develops buds along leaf margins which after falling on ground develop into new individuals.

 

Leaf of Bryophyllum showing buds

Spore formation

Spores are reproductive cells produced by certain plants and fungi. Bread mould (Rhizopus) growing on breads uses spore formation as mode of reproduction. Rhizopus is made up of thread like structures known as hyphae with a bulb like appearance on their top which is known as sporangia. These sporangium contain spores which when encounter favorable condition give rise to new individuals

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