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Animal Tissues: Muscular and Nervous Tissues
Animal tissues are made up of cells which are very active in nature as animals are under consistent movement. Animal tissues specific for providing movements in a body are grouped under muscular tissues whereas tissues with cells giving the quick response to external stimulus are classified as nervous tissue.
Muscular tissues are made up of cells that are elongated in nature with the main function of providing necessary movements in our body. These are also known as muscle fibers. These movements are as a result of contraction and relaxation of a protein present in muscles called "contractile protein". Muscle fibers are further classified as striated, smooth and cardiac muscles
Muscular tissues are helpful in providing movement in the body whereas nervous tissues are responsible for providing rapid response to external stimulus.
Striated muscles: Muscles whose movements are controlled at our will. These are also known as skeletal muscles as they are mostly associated with bones. They are made up of long, cylindrical, multinucleated and unbranched cells. Under a microscope, it also shows alternate light and dark bands.
Smooth muscles: These are involuntary muscles which are not controlled at our will. These muscles are made up of uninucleate and spindle-shaped cells e.g. iris of the eye, movement of blood vessels, food movement in alimentary canal etc.
Cardiac muscles: These muscles are made up of cylindrical, uninucleate and branched cells. These muscles show rhythmic pattern of contraction and relaxation e.g. heart muscles.
Fig 1 Different type of muscles
These tissues are specialized for rapid response to external stimulus. They are also specialized in transporting the response to different body parts Nervous tissues are made up of neurons or nerve cells. A neuron is made of the cell body called perikaryon or soma which contains a nucleus and cytoplasm.
A single large extension comes from the body is termed as axon and numerous small parts arise from the body are known as dendrites. The length of a neuron reaches up to a meter. Neuron transmits nerve impulses which govern the movement of muscles.
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