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Animal Tissues Epithelial & Connective Tissue
Cells with similar structure specialized for the specific function is known as tissues. Energy requirement of animals are high as a result most of the cells in animals are active in nature. Animal tissues are mainly grouped into four main types based on the function they perform. It includes epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue and nervous tissue.
Epithelial tissues are made up of closely packed cells arranged to form a continuous layer. They cover most internal and external body surfaces. It also regulates the transport of materials across body and external environment. Epithelia are mostly provided with a basement membrane.
Epithelial cells are of different types such as
1. Simple squamous epithelium: Thin and flat cells providing selective permeable surface e.g. cells covering lung alveoli or blood vessels.
2. Stratified squamous epithelium: Flat cells arranged in layers helps to protect areas prone to abrasion e.g. cells lining the skin.
3. Columnar epithelium: Pillar like cells help in absorption and secretion e.g. lining of intestine
4. Ciliated columnar epithelium: Columnar cells with cilia for movements e.g. lining of the respiratory tract.
5. Cuboidal epithelium: Cube like cells helpful in providing mechanical strength e.g. lining of kidney tubules.
6. Glandular epithelium: Epithelial cells specialized in developing into glands.
Cells of connective tissue are loosely packed and are scattered in an extracellular matrix. It helps in connecting various body parts.
They are classified as follows.
Areolar Tissue: It helps to attach the skin to the tissue beneath. Fills the vacant space inside organs to provide protection and also helps in tissue repairing
Adipose Tissue: Composed of cells having a large fat droplet thereby acting as insulators
Ligament: Bones are composed of cells with the supportive hard matrix of calcium and phosphorous. It builds the major support to the body. Two bones are joined together by ligaments.
Cartilage: Cells having large intracellular spaces with the solid matrix of fibers and proteins. Present in nose, ear etc.
Blood: Blood is a vital fluid in animals which helps to transport oxygen, nutrients and waste materials to different body parts. Blood is composed of a liquid part known as plasma and cells like red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and Blood platelets.