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Animal Kingdom Homework Help

The Animal kingdom comprises a diverse range of organisms living in different habitats. The animal kingdom is further classified based on arrangement of cells, body symmetry, nature of coelom, patterns of life processes like digestive, reproductive, circulatory system. Though all animals are multicellular they do not exhibit same arrangement of cells. In some animals like molluscs, the cells are loosely arranged. This type of organization of cells is known as cellular organization. In higher level animals like coelenterates, the cells performing same function are arranged together, making the arrangement of cells bit more complex. This type of organization of cells is known as tissue level of organization. At a higher level, class platyhelminthes, annelids, anthropods, vertebrates exhibit organs which are a group of tissues performing the same function. This type of organization is known as organ level organization. Specific organs are assigned to play an essential role in life processes.

 

Body Symmetry

Animals can be further categorized based on body symmetry. Two categories of animals are seen – asymmetrical and symmetrical. If a plane passes through the centre of the body and divides it equally into two halves – right and left, then the body is symmetrical in shape. This type of symmetry is also known as bilateral symmetry. For example, organisms belonging to the class vertebrates, anthropods, annelids, chordates are bilateral in shape. In addition to this, if any plane passes through the central axis of the body and exhibits two identical halves, then it is called as radial symmetry. Coelenterates, echinoderms have this kind of body plan. While some animals are not symmetrical in shape, such as sponges, organisms belonging to class mollusks, these animals are said to be asymmetrical in shape.

 

Radial Symmetry                                          B. Bilateral Symmetry

 

Diploblastic And Triploblastic Organisation

Animals in whch cells are arranged in two embryonic layers, the outer ectoderm and the inner endoderm are known as diploblastic animals. An undifferentiated mesoglea is present between ectoderm and endoderm. Example coelenterates. In some animals, the mesoglea is fully developed in the embryo as third germinal layer between ectoderm and endoderm. This layer is known as mesoderm and animals with three layers of embryonic cells are known as triploblastic animals. Example class platyhelminthes, chordates, vertebrates.

 

A.    Diploblastic                          B. Triploblastic