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Anatomy of Cockroach
Alimentary canal of cockroach:
The alimentary canal is divided into three parts – foregut, midgut and hindgut. The mouth opens into muscular pharynx and follows into oesophagus. The oesophagus ends up in a sac-like structure called crop which is used for storing food. Just beneath the sac, a gizzard or proventriculus is present. Proventriculus has outer layer of thick circular muscles and inner culitcle made up by 6 chitinuous plates which form teeth that functions to breakdown and grind the food particles. Hepatic caeca or gastric caeca is a ring of 6-8 blind tubules that are present at the junction of foregut and midgut. Hepatic caeca is responsible for secreting digestive juices. The midgut and hindgut are long tubules with the hindgut being broader than midgut. The hindgut is divided into three parts namely, ileum, colon and anus. Yellow, thin filamentous rings of 100-150 tubules called malphigian tubules are present between the midgut and hindgut. Their function is to remove excretory and waste products through haemolymph.
Circulatory system of cockroach:
Open circulatory system is seen with poorly developed blood vessels. The blood vessels open in to a space called haemocoel where visceral organs are bathed in blood, thus known as haemolymph. The haemolymph is composed of colourless plasma and haemocytes, thus giving white colour to the blood of cockroach. Lying along the mid-dorsal line of thorax and abdomen is an elongated muscular tube representing heart. The heart is further differentiated into funnel shaped chambers with ostia on the either side. Blood from sinuses enter heart through ostia and is pumped out anteriorly to sinuses again.
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Respiratory system of cockroach:
Present on the lateral side of the body, there are 10 pairs of holes called spiracles consisting tracheal tubes. The opening of spiracles is regulated by sphincters. The tracheal tubes are further subdivided into thin branching tubes called as tracheoles. These tracheoles carry oxygen from air to all parts of the body. The exchange of gases takes place at tracheoles by diffusion.